Recovering from injury. The mental approach…

armThis will be the slowest blog post I’ve ever typed – as I’m doing it with one arm. Last Sunday in a triathlon I was smugly congratulating myself for almost finishing the bike section without a puncture or crash (the weather was dreadful, the road surface was rough – very rough) and suddenly, without grace or intent, I’m flying through the air and bounced on my back, my head and then my right arm. My bike is fine. She got a lovely soft landing, right on top of me.

The first cyclist past went to tell a marshall. The next stayed with me and did everything in her power to distract me from the pain (I am very grateful). The race organisers and paramedics were wonderful and eventually reassured it was just a broken wrist and nothing more serious (my helmet was rather dented) and let my husband drive me to A&E. After x-rays it was actually found to be a broken elbow; a fracture to the Radial Head.

The only information I got from A&E was that they won’t give information – you have to get it from the fracture clinic. Great if the clinic is the next day, not so great if they give you a date over two weeks away. So I needed to do my own research for physical recovery and this made me think about the mental recovery too.

I’m definitely no expert on the physical side (though if anyone else does fracture their radial head I liked this leaflet from Oxford University Hospitals ( ) but I regularly work with injured athletes on the mental side. When I run workshops and ask athletes who has been injured in their sport at some point probably 90% of hands go up. So recovering well, both mentally and physically, is important for us to learn.

As psychologists, everything we do with athletes is completely confidential so it is hard to share or give examples of processes that we go through. So I thought being the injured athlete myself could be a great way to show how we would ideally use psychology strategies to recover from an injury. As an additional positive if we manage our mental recovery well we can sometimes benefit from stress related growth and certainly manage to see our sport in a little more context than before.

We can follow five steps when dealing with an injury.


Being upset is perfectly ok. We have to grieve the effort we have put in that won’t now come to fruition, the missed competitions, the lost opportunities and the fact we won’t get to do what we love for a while. Spending a few days sulking is ok. But then we need to get proactive. Often some of the anger isn’t about the actual injury but the uncertainty around it. How long will it take, what caused it, what can I do? This can be really disconcerting and certainly where my frustration has come from. So, the next step is to get the information we need to put some concrete plans in place.

Information gathering

The more information we have the better decisions we can make. Finding out more about our injury and recovery is called ‘instrumental coping’ and has been found to improve how well our rehabilitation goes.  Someone suggested I look at how bones heal so I could visualise and understand what was going on in my am. I loved this idea and found this videos of what my body is doing as it repairs itself:

As well as this, if we are able to reflect on what caused it we can not only rehab from the specific injury but practice things to strengthen any weak areas to reduce the risk of the injury happening again. Unfortunately for me I have no idea what caused the crash as could see nothing in the road (though I was a little high on gas and air by that point) but I can certainly practice riding on pothole-y and gravel-y roads in future. 

Finding experts to help

The next step is to identify and approach experts. Ideally we need someone who is an expert in their field and is clear and concise with what is required (both in time spent on rehabilitation exercises and how to do them properly) – studies have found this makes us more likely to do our rehab exercises and help us feel more confident in our long term recovery. I have a fantastic physio and as soon as I get the fracture clinic all clear I’ll be booking in with him to ensure I get full range of movement back.

Goal set recovery

The athletes who recover best are those who take their recovery as seriously as they do their training. Just as we create specific goals and training plans for our sport we should do the same to recover. Those who do this have been found to have a higher return to sport rate, returned to their sport quicker and had the highest chance of returning to pre-injury participation levels. Goal setting for recovery helps us feel we are doing something productive and when we feel gloomy we can clearly see the right elements are in place to get ourselves back to full health and fitness.

So for me I’ve picked a race to get ready for. I didn’t want to leave it over the winter and have the fear of racing my bike hanging over me. And from that outcome goal (finishing the race) I’ve considered what I will need to achieve to do it, and then what processes and actions I’ll have to put in place and complete in order to hit those achievements. Here is my plan:

Elbow goals

Fill the injury gap

Finally, our mental health can become fragile when we are injured. Many of us use our sport as a coping mechanism for stress as it provides a physical release of any pent-up frustration, some head space to calm down and some thinking space to put everything into perspective. When injured we lose all of that – and have extra time to fill – so having a plan in place to hold up your mental health is important; friends to chat to, other physical activities you can do, another hobby you haven’t had time for lately. 

  • Friends: Social interaction is really important when injured as it can act as a bit of a buffer for the emotional trauma of injury. Studies have shown the more social support an athlete has, the lower the initial depressive symptoms. I have been so grateful for the support and sympathy from my friends over the last week and for so many comments, shared stories and pieces of advice on social media. They all help.
  • Learning new skills: If physically possible then spending time on cross training or learning new skills or techniques (such as swimming, a Yoga or Pilates course or some strength and conditioning sessions) which will help your sports performance in the long term will be good. I’m going to focus on stretching and core work (which I regularly neglect)
  • Mental skills: Using this time to learn mental skills can help us be a better athlete when we get back to it. Skills such as imagery, breathing techniques and self-talk can all help build our confidence so we have an advantage when we get back to competition and some (such as attentional control, imagery, team building and developing better ways to communicate) have been found to help reduce fear of re-injury. I’m going to use imagery to help me feel more confident back on the bike.

So – that is my plan – I have two months till the race I’ve picked to see how well I manage to stick to it!

Eight marathon strategies…

A month before….

Confidence Jar

To counter our negativity bias – where we give our negative traits greater weight in our evaluations than our positive ones we need regular reminders of our efforts and achievements. One way to do this is to record all our achievements physically in a Confidence Jar. This jar then acts as a visual reminder of how good we are and how hard we have worked. Leave the jar by the side of the bed – then when you ruminate about your fears evidence of your successes are within reach.

You need a jar and 24 thin strips of paper. Write down:

  • Anything you are proud of achieving.
  • Anything you worked hard towards that was successful.
  • Any strengths you have identified.
  • New skills you have learnt.

Familiarisation training

The first time we do something it is scary. Each time we do it after it gets easier. So if we can become familiar with run courses we feel far less panicked or scared. Familiarisation training helps us feel more comfortable, less intimidating and more in control on competition day. Two specifics for this: the course and the weather.

The course: Sounds simple (and it is) but it is all about doing the course in advance. Either in one go if short or in chunks if a long race. If the venue is open to anyone or is on open roads or land then build some time in your plan to visit and train on it. Something which can work well is naming parts of the course. The names don’t have to be sensible and ones which make them smile will build the comfort. Ones previously used by athletes include; Puddle Corner (there is always a big puddle), Jazz Bend (a guy was playing the saxophone there) and Windy Way (big cross winds).

The weather: Practice in everything. When the treadmill is looking tempting purposefully go out and run. When you look out of the window on race day and there is a storm, or hot weather then you’ll know you’ve already conquered that weather – and survived.


Start line

There is a prime level of arousal for each athlete when it comes to being in the right mental and physical place for performance. If we are not at the right level by the time we get to the race we either need to amp it up or tone it down.

To amp up… Music

Music used in the short period before competition can help athletes get to their optimal arousal zone. To use music effectively think about the purpose of the music then start with a long list of familiar tracks that cover their musical taste and then whittle them down taking into consideration tracks which:

  • You love and that get you fired up and ready to go
  • Have meaning or inspirational words which ‘talk’ to you and make you want to go out and perform at your best
  • Use strong rhythms
  • Invoke some positive memories or feelings.

Once you have your playlist put shuffle mode on. When you listen to a playlist too often our brains can anticipate what comes next and we start to lose the dopamine benefit.

To chill down…Colourful Breathing 

We usually breathe about 12-18 breaths a minute – slowing this down is an effective way  of  controlling our body. Breathing is a particularly important element in competition because everything our body does physiologically feeds back into our brain, giving it signals as to how we are feeling. Our brain then responds to those signals. If we are take shorter sharper breaths we are signalling to our brain that we are panicking and are in difficulty. This stresses our body, makes us tighten up, puts us on alert and gets our heart beating much faster. Colourful breathing helps us control our heart rate and slows down our breathing level to only five breathes a minute.

Pick two colours you love. Here we will use blue and red.

  1. Start with thinking about your breath as being held gently just behind your belly button.
  2. Draw air in through your nose for a count of 4 – as you do this think of the air going in as hot red.
  3. Hold the air behind your belly button for a count of 2.
  4. Breathe out through your mouth for a count of 6 – as you do this think of the air leaving their body as cool blue to build a calmer feeling.
  5. Repeat until feel calmer.


Early in the race 


Smiling is such a simple strategy yet increasingly research is finding benefits in doing so whilst in competition, especially in endurance sports. Two great pieces of research find that smiling helps you run more efficiently and reduces your perception of effort. The thought is that it relaxes your emotional state – so you get an improvement in speed for the same effort.

  • Study 1: Runners who purposely smiled when struggling on a treadmill test found their oxygen consumption and their perception of effort was lower.
  • Study 2: 13 riders on exercise bikes in a lab and asked them to ride for as long as possible and while riding had happy or sad faces subliminally flashed onto a screen. The cyclists weren’t aware of the intervention and didn’t know there were faces were being flashed but those who saw the smiles increased their endurance by 12% compared to those who were shown frowns.

So, smile when you feel you are struggling as a personal boost. Seek out those smiling at you in the crowd to feel more positive. I use the phrase ‘Smile every mile’ as it is easy to remember and gives me a task focused activity to do regularly.

Motivational mantra

A mantra is a short word or phrase to focus the mind which can help us maintain motivation when we start to struggle. It works best when:

  • It is really personal to you and resonates deeply
  • It is positive
  • It is short
  • It is purposeful
  • Three words seem to work best


When it gets tough

Athletes tend to split as to what they prefer. Some runners love to focus, others to distract. Both types of strategy can be used (especially over a long long race) but studies have found elite athletes tend to use more focused strategies and those looking to complete rather than compete use more distraction ones.

To focus

Body checking is really popular. You monitor your body and adjust pace, strategy or movement. It helps you become hyper aware of your bodily actions and functions; heart rate, muscle tension, breathing rate and ensures you keep on top of the information you need to manage your race tactics. To body check you need to mentally think about each section of your body part by part and focus on good technique in each part. This could be:

  • Monitoring your foot strike and stride pattern
  • Ensuring your arms are swinging forwards and backwards rather than side to side
  • Sticking to specific breathing patterns.
  • Counting can also be good – it distracts from pain but keeps you focused on rhythm & pace.

To distract

This is where you find ways to distract yourself from the way you are feeling during a race. You mentally focus on something other than your body and how uncomfortable you are feeling. It helps pass the time, reduces the level of boredom and keeps you racing. There are hundreds of ways to distract ourselves – you need to find the one which works for you. Other runners have used:

  • Doing maths and equations in their heads about the distance or time left till the finish.
  • Counting how many other athletes they overtake.
  • Counting up to 100 and back down again.
  • Repeating a mantra in another language.
  • Writing a competition report in their head.
  • Thanking every volunteer or marshal.
  • Thinking of the perfect tweet to summarise their competition.
  • Planning their post-competition treat.
  • In a race finding someone going the same pace as them and chatting to them.
  • Making up the story of the person in front of them.
  • Creating a competition in their head for the best banner or supporters sign spotted.

Should Trainee Sport Psychologists work for nothing?

An advert went out last week from British Gymnastics and the English Institute of Sport (EIS) offering a year 2 trainee Sport Psychologist an amazing opportunity. Working with elite athletes offering both individual sessions and workshops. A great way to build your ‘hours’ as you head towards your charteredship. The downside. No pay.

To qualify as a chartered sport psychologist you need to show you have completed a huge number of hours and performed in four areas: Ethics, Working directly with athletes, Research and Educating athletes. You need to be able to show you have spent 2,000 hours with athletes or working on their needs. All of this makes a lot of sense – we are working with people’s minds and mental health and so we must be fully competent to do so. The British Gymnastics role is trying to offer some of this training, in an elite environment. And that is to be lauded. But not without any pay at all.

I did an unpaid internship as part of my undergraduate degree. I worked for 4 months for CBS News in Washington DC and it was amazing. I learnt masses and it was a springboard to the rest of my life. But I was very lucky in that I had access to funding to allow me to do so. It was required as part of my degree, I had budgeted for it and was able to take a student loan as we didn’t pay fees back then.

With this ‘opportunity’ I got a real grump on. Having spent years working in the policy and communications sides of the education and training worlds (I helped set up and run the National Apprenticeship Service within the Department of Business) before retraining in psychology I have seen the down sides of employers being allowed to offer unpaid internships.

This internship (asking for someone in year two of their Stage 2 training) is looking for someone who has already spent (purely on fees), £27,000 completing three years of an undergraduate psychology degree, around £6,000 on a MSc in Sport and Exercise Psychology, around £5,000 in fees to the British Psychological Society for their Stage 2 qualification and around £3,000 on supervisors fees. So not only do they have at least 5 years of higher education behind them but £41,000 spent purely on training. And then they are told they need to work for free, giving their time, energy and knowledge to a Company (which from my googling is what British Gymnastics seems to be) which their last financial statement shows they made a surplus of £542,000 after tax.

I know from my years working in Communications that most businesses either shy away from confronting those who critique the way they work or go in all guns blazing to shut down their detractors. Therefore, I was actually delighted when Kate Hays, Head of Performance Psychology at EIS contacted me to put her view forward as to why this is a valuable opportunity and should not be branded as exploitative (as I had done on social media). It is a really laudable approach and to me suggests they really are trying to do their best to find ways to offer training in a landscape that is very unclear.

Interestingly we ended up agreeing on most points:

  • There are far more people coming out of MSc courses than there are jobs for.
  • The MSc programmes (stage 1) are designed to provide the theoretical foundation for applied work but not the skills to do applied work. This means potential practitioners leave an MSc course with limited applied skills and need extensive supervision when working with athletes.
  • The gold standard should be taking a PhD within a team of practitioners so trainee sports psychologists can develop their craft whilst receiving a stipend, complete both a PhD and a stage 2 and be entirely prepared for employment afterwards. EIS do offer these but are limited in how many they can offer.

Where I think we will never agree is on this payment issue creating a divide between those who can apply and those who wouldn’t feel able to. If a 16 year old apprentice who is learning on the job, having extensive supervision and doing their training at the same time must be paid (as the government says) why is a 23 year old who has been through 2 university courses different? They may not have yet developed the full range of skills required but they are offering some skills so should receive some level of pay for that service.

I am not suggesting someone at this stage in their career should be paid a full Sport Psychologist salary but to ask someone to work for absolutely nothing – when the Sutton Trust has estimated it costs an intern between £800-£1000 a month to live – does to me feel exploitative. Unpaid internships are strongly disliked by the public (A 2017 social mobility commission report suggested that 75% of the population think they should be paid) and the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Social Mobility wants them to be limited to four weeks only. And surely we want our profession to be full of practitioners from every background so that we can really reflect and empathise with those athletes and support staff we work with. This won’t happen if only the wealthy can access elite level training.

Kate says this is a role which could be done alongside full employment as the practitioner chooses the level of commitment. I would argue however to get the true benefit of it you wouldn’t want to be working so many hours as the CPD they are offering is extensive and valuable and the reflection required as a trainee sports psychology is one of the best ways of developing your skills and expertise. And this needs clear headspace. Not a full time job to focus on.

Kate is clear their current practitioners are really happy with the routes they’ve taken. I have no doubt that is true. They will have had access to EIS training (which from the limited amount I’m experienced and read about is absolutely phenomenal) and could afford to go down this route. The issue would be we would never hear from those who couldn’t afford to apply for it in the first place.

The guidance from government says the only times companies can offer an internship without paying at least minimum wage:

  • Is if it is for a student required to do an internship for less than one year as part of a UK-based further or higher education course
  • If they are under 16 on school work experience
  • If it is a charity, voluntary organisation, associated fund raising body or a statutory body
  • They are only shadowing.

This all makes sense. But a company recruiting someone into a role where they are asking for at least 5 years of prior training, to someone who will be in their 20s at least, when they are doing real applied work with individual athletes does not fit this. I would love to see British Gymnastics taking a lead, paying their psychologists (perhaps after a short period of work experience to check they are suitable) and showing best practice in ensuring everyone, whatever their background, gets an opportunity to be involved.

I would love to hear other’s thoughts….

Vicarious confidence – taking inspiration from those around you

I write and talk a lot about confidence – it is one of the main reasons athletes come to see me. I will often explain that from my reading of the sport psychology literature in confidence I’ve identified 12 main sources:

  1. Previous performances and skills mastered
  2. Extensive preparation
  3. Vicarious experiences
  4. Verbal persuasion
  5. Trust in advisors
  6. Environment comfort and familiarity
  7. Social support
  8. Innate factors (feeling naturally talented)
  9. Athlete’s view (it is all going well)
  10. Physiological traits (interpreting nerves as excitement not anxiety)
  11. Self-presentation (Feeling they have the right body, arm span, kit, equipment etc)
  12. Competitive advantage (having played and beaten opponents before)

The first two are really robust. These are the ones we can focus upon to give ourselves the best chance of success; Mastery of Skills and Experience and Preparation. I’ve written a piece on each recently for Performance Kitchen: Mastery (coming soon) & Preparation.

So, what of the other 10 sources. Are there any we can proactively work on?  One to focus on today – and something that is lovely to do over holidays when we reflect on our year – is looking at where you can gain confidence from others – the Vicarious experiences. This is where we gain our confidence from watching others perform successfully, especially if they are people we have some affinity or similarity with.

I’ve been reflecting recently on the people in my life who (without having any idea) prompted me over the years to go for what I waned when I was really scared to do it. Each of these people accidentally taught me a real lesson in bravery and seeing their achievements helped me make really difficult choices which have more than paid off.

10 years ago just before Christmas I cycled to meet a friend (and my triathlon coach) Annie Emmerson. We had lunch. She was pregnant with her now nine year old daughter. We chatted about work and she told me all about her long term career goal. I was amazed that someone who was about to have a baby would have an ambitious goal like that and would take a leap into going for it. But she did. Her goal has been hit many times. It meant when I got pregnant I could see that it was ok to have a baby and still go for my career goals at the same time.

Even longer ago I worked in a government agency as a communications manager. It was a small office (fewer than ten of us) and we were a mix of marketing and communications people. One of the marketing girls, Steph, was just a huge bundle of fun in the office and always really creative. We all gradually moved on to different roles and lost touch, until I saw her on Facebook launching a business. She’d had her first baby and received tonnes of flowers she didn’t have enough vases for or the energy to look after and had a genius idea to create a box of goodies for new mums. I followed her progress and she was instrumental in making me think that if someone who is not that different to me (although she pulls off an ace fringe in a way I could never even hope to) and had a similar job could set up and run her own business that maybe it was within my capabilities too. Her business: Don’t buy her flowers is doing amazingly and has expanded to cover every occasion you could imagine. She showed all of us around her if you have a fab idea and take a risk it can pay off.

Then, finally, when I was unhappy in my last grown up job I had an idea that I would love to understand more about behaviour and our brains and particularly how they work in sport. I loved triathlon but knew I only did ok from hard work – there is not a sporting gene in my body! I was curious about how mindset and attitude could influence sporting success. I really wanted to go and study it but I already had three degrees and a mortgage and who on earth goes back to uni at 37? Randomly and separately two people I followed on twitter Helen Russell and Michelle Gywnn were both vocal about how, as adults, they were going back to university, to take an MSc. Again, it felt that if they could do it, so could I. I wouldn’t be the only one taking a massive risk, I’d have others around me doing the same. I started an MSc. Then did another for good measure!

As a result of seeing the efforts and bravery of four people a little bit like me, I now have a business I adore running. While none of them set out to inspire or bring anyone else confidence – they were just getting on with their own lives – inspire and bring confidence they did.

So, if you feel you need a boost, or to gain some confidence don’t look to Instagram or in the magazines for celebs to follow. Look at those around you, who are similar to you, and take your confidence from them.

Review: This Girl Ran, Helen Croydon

This girl ranI set myself a goal for 2018 to read 25 endurance sport books. These can be autobiographies, text books or popular psychology books. I plan to review them all (as I’m often asked on twitter and by clients for good books to read about sport psychology). Five books in and finally writing my first review for This Girl Ran by Helen Croydon.

All triathletes have their stories of how naively they started out and how they struggled through their early races not having a clue about the etiquette, rules or culture they were throwing themselves into. In this book Croydon has all of these, but also provides it the juxtaposition of the fact she wasn’t coming from another sport or having done a bit of something in the past. She was coming from full on London Party Girl. She talks about the process of swapping delicate heals for clompy bike shoes, wet look trousers for wetsuits and cream blazers for hoodies. It is a growing up, discovering yourself journey but with added lake weed and a lot of mud.

I’m not usually a fan of these ‘girl done well’ books, or the ‘amateur starting out in a sport’ memoirs but having worked with Croydon recently I felt I should read her book. I’m really glad I did. Not only did it take me down a memory lane of my own start in triathlon but I thought it would be a really nice way of learning about running and triathlon if you were new to the sport. She has snuck in some really good advice on kit, training, mental approaches, physiology and race tactics without it feeling patronising or awkward.

From the sport psychology perspective I loved Croydon talking about the distraction techniques she uses to get her through the tough times on longer runs or bike rides. She uses fractions, doing the maths over and over in her head of how much she has done, or how much further she has to go. This has the effect of chunking up the race into much smaller parts, making it feel much more achievable.

Croydon also made me reflect upon my own approach to racing, and that of the athletes I work with. She talks about how she realised she didn’t have a natural talent for sport, or the physiology to be the best, but that she could be on control of the dedication and discipline she put into trying to achieve her goal. This was a really good reminder that we should stop comparing ourselves to others and focus on the processes in our sports we can control. It is a line which has been playing on my mind since finishing the book and has given me a swift kick up the bum to work harder. And something I’ll be reminding the athletes I work with. So for the giggles, the tips and the inspiration, This Girl Ran is worthwhile reading, especially if you have just taken your first steps into the world of triathlon.



Tribe of Mentors. 55 pieces of great advice


Terris book









Tim Ferris – known for the 4 hour work week recently wrote to a bunch of successful people he admired. He asked them 11 questions:

  1. What is the book or books you’ve given most as a gift and why?
  2. What purchase of $100 or less has most positively impacted your life?
  3. How has failure set you up for later success?
  4. What would you write on a giant billboard?
  5. What is the most worthwhile investment you’ve ever made?
  6. What is an unusual habit or an absurd thing that you love?
  7. In the last five years what new belief, habit or behaviour has most improved your life?
  8. What advice would you give to college student about to enter the real world?
  9. What bad recommendations to you hear in your area of expertise?
  10. What have you become better at saying no to and how?
  11. When you feel overwhelmed or unfocused what do you do?

140 people sent back replies and the hefty book he’s just released contains them all. It can be bought here. I think the book will work differently for different people and we’ll each take out own nuggets from it, but the points that really struck me are here…


10 books to add to your reading list

  • Sam Barondes – Making Sense of People – useful mental models to explain what makes people tick.
  • Viktor Frankl’s – Man’s Search for Meaning
  • Christopher Alexander – A pattern Language
  • Chungliang Al Huang – Thinking Body, Dancing Mind
  • Bob Richards – Heart of a Champion
  • Gary Mack – Mind Gym
  • John Wooden – Wooden: A lifetime of Observations and Reflections On and Off the court.
  • George Leonard – Mastery
  • Charlie Munger – Charlie’s Almanack
  • Don Migual Ruiz – The Four Agreements


9 giant billboard phrases

  • Bozoma Saint John – Be the change you want to see in the world.
  • Richa Chadha – “Be so good they can’t ignore you”.
  • It is impossible to live without failing at something, unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at all – in which case you fail by default (JK Rowling)
  • Bear Grylls – Storms make us stronger.
  • Fedor Holz – Whether you think you can or you can’t, you’re right (Henry Ford)
  • Peter Guber – Don’t let the weight of fear weigh down the joy of curiosity.
  • Sarah Elizabeth Lewis – Keep the main thing the main thing.
  • Dr Jim Loehr – To laugh often and much; to win the respect of intelligent people and the affection of children….to leave the world a bit better…to know even one live has breathed easier because you have lived; this is to have succeeded.
  • Daniel Negreanu – To avoid criticism say nothing, do nothing, be nothing. (Elbert Hubbard)


8 great pieces of advice

  • Make sure you have something in your diary every day that you are looking forward to.
  • Andrew Ross Sorkin – Persistence matters more than talent.
  • Marie Forleo – Pursue every project, idea or industry that genuinely lights you up, regardless of how unrelated each idea is, or how unrealistic a long-term career in that field might seem now. You’ll connect the dots later.
  • Jason Fried – Time and attention are very different things. They are your most precious resources. You always have less attention than time. Full attention I where you do your best work. Protect and preserve it.
  • Daniel Ek – Good things come to those who work their arses off and never give up.
  • Darren Aronofsky – Most of the game is about persistence. Keep the vision clear in your head and every day refuse all obstacles to get to the goal.
  • Strauss Zelnick – Figure out what success means to you – and make sure your choices are in service of those goals
  • Linda Rottenberg – don’t keep too many doors open – it can lead to paralysis or self-deception.


7 ways to turn down requests or invitations

  • Kyle Maynard – rate any requests or invitations on a scale of 1-10 but you are not allowed to give a 7. Then it becomes clear whether you actually want to do something or not. A 7 is an obligation to do it. 8 or above is a want. 6 or below is not going to happen.
  • Neil Strauss – I ask myself if I’m saying yes out of guilt or fear. If so then I give a polite no.
  • Annie Duke – I always imagine it is the day after an event and I’m asking myself if the travel was worth it. If it was I’ll say yes. If not, no.
  • Gary Vaynerchuk – I need a healthy balance of 20% yeses to things that seem dumb because I believe in serendipity.
  • Tim O’Reilly & Esther Dyson – Would I say yes to this if it was on Tuesday. Because if it gets to Tuesday and you think ‘why on earth did I say yes’ then you should have said no.
  • Sam Harris – I say no to more or less everything. I realised I was being given a choice between working on my own projects and spending time with my family or working for someone else (usually for free)
  • Drew Houston – you don’t owe anyone lengthy explanations and you don’t have to respond to every email. Brief one-line responses like ‘I can’t make it but thanks for thinking of me’ are enough.


6 habits to copy

  • Greg Norman – Brushing my teeth while standing on one leg – It is great for your core, legs and stabilisation.
  • Sarah Elizabeth Lewis- Taking privacy very seriously when working on creative work. Going off social media as this stops me worrying about what others might think of some unusual idea your pondering and you give it a chance to grow and mature.
  • Muneeb Ali – I ask myself ‘when I am old how much would I be willing to pay to travel back in time and relive the moment that I’m experiencing right now. That simple question puts everything in perspective and makes you grateful for the experience you are having right now.
  • Ben Silberman – Keeping a gratitude journal. If you build up a habit of writing things down your brain is constantly looking for those thing and you feel happier.
  • Dr Jim Loehr – Daily journaling. Quantifying behaviour raises awareness and as a consequence habit acquisition times are typically accelerated.
  • Robert Rodriguez – On a task I need to focus on I sit down with two notebooks. One for the task and one for distractions. I set my timer for 20 minutes. Every time I find myself getting distracted with something else I could do I write it down on the distractions notebook and go back to the task. Any incoming missile goes on the distractions notebook and I go back to focusing on the task.


5 ways to reflect on failure

  • Arianna Huffington – Failure is not the opposite of success but a steppingstone to success.
  • David Lynch – a real good failure gives a person tremendous freedom. You can’t fall further down so there is nowhere to go but up. There is nothing left to lose.
  • Marc Benioff – I look at every failure as a learning experience and try to spend time with my failures. I stew on them for a while until I pick out some nugget from them that I can take forward. I learnt that if I’m upset about something I should spend time asking myself “what could I learn” because another opportunity is going to come in the future and I will be better able to re-execute it.
  • Dr Jim Loehr – Failure will happen and failure is an opportunity to build resilience, to practice forgiveness of self and others and to gain wisdom.
  • Kristen Ulmer – Fear is not a sign of personal weakness but a natural state of discomfort that occurs when you are out of your comfort zone. It is there to sabotage you but to help you come alive, be more focused and to get a heightened state of excitement and awareness.


4 ways to find your focus

  • Jesse Williams- I ask myself: “What would you do if you if you weren’t afraid.”
  • Neil Strauss – Overwhelmed is about mentally managing what’s coming from outside yourself, unfocused is about mentally managing what’s going on inside. What works for both is stepping away from work for a while.
  • Andrew Ross Sorkin – I always think ‘Would it help?’ When something happens and you start to think about if you should be worried you then think ‘would it help’.
  • Ingvar Kamprad – You can do so much in ten minutes. Ten minutes, once gone are gone for good. Divide your life into ten-minute units and sacrifice as few of them as possible in meaningless activity.


3 ways to solve a problem

  • Jocko Willink – Prioritise and execute. Take a step back. Detach from the mayhem, look at the situation. Assess the problems task or issues, choose the one which will have the biggest impact. Execute a plan based on that.
  • Tom Peters – MBWA – Manage by wandering around. Talk to people. Be in touch. Learn from everyone.
  • Ed Coan – I tend to break it down, put it down on paper, then look at it half hour later. All of those smaller things don’t look like such a big deal.


2 bad recommendations

  • Rick Rubin – When people give you advice they are giving it to you based on their skills, experience and perspectives. Often people are telling you about their journey, and your journey will be different. So feel free to ignore lots of advice.
  • Dr Jim Loehr – We advise people to stay away from stress but protection from stress serves only to erode my capacity to handle it. Stress exposure is the stimulus for all growth and growth actually occurs during episodes of recovery.


1 worthwhile investment

  • Dr Brene Brown – Spending 55 minutes defining a problem and then the final five minutes fixing it. The more time you spend defining the problem the better you will fix it. SO invest in problem identification.



Learning from the best: Matt Jones

Matt Jones Frames of MindA few weeks ago I got the chance to interview the freestyle mountain biker, Matt Jones. I work with lots of cyclists but none of them are yet doing the kind of tricks that Matt routinely fits into his rides and I was fascinated to find out how he approaches something that is so risky.

Matt’s tricks got noticed by Red Bull who offered him an amazing opportunity to create a video showcasing his skills. However there was one problem. On the day he was supposed to start practicing and designing the course he was injured. He couldn’t ride. Here he tells us how he overcame that huge hurdle (and the daily hurdles which come with his sport) to make the beautiful film: Frames of Mind.

He prepares really really well so he feels more confident and relaxed…

“If you are very relaxed and not paying attention to risks and importance of doing everything properly you are basically putting yourself at risk. There are riders like that who go into things with very little care and it is quite amazing to watch them and they really go big but they have either very short careers or spend a lot of time with their feet up with broken bones! So I think to have the approach and go into things with a very focused mindset about where your limitations are and where you are very calm and confident within yourself as a rider and kind of maximise what you are good at that’s really important and then you can be more relaxed then and have faith and know what you are capable of. Whereas if every trick you are going to do back to back consistently feels high risk to you then you are going to be super stressed about the whole thing and that is a difficult way to be.”

He focuses only on his tricks, no-one else’s…

“Something I’ve found more useful lately is not look so much at what everyone else is doing because that is always quite hard, you are always comparing yourself to the competition so if you just stay in your lane and focus in your own thing and however you are judged, you are judged, and however well you do, you do, but as long as you do that it takes a massive level of stress away from the whole thing and pressure because you just do what you know you can and spend all day practicing.”

“It is super hard when you are all practicing for a competition and there is someone practicing the most amazing tricks in practice. It used to put me on a downer and think there is no way I could do that and accepting that you are not as good as someone is quite tricky especially when you are at an event, or just before but I sometimes find it easier now just to reframe things and if someone is doing a trick I know I would struggle to do or am not happy to do in practice, if anything it is an opportunity to watch them do it and seeing someone else do it makes you realise it is possible, you don’t have to be the first guy to do it.”

He sets really realistic goals…

“If I go to a contest where I think I can win and if you don’t win you are really on the back foot. Whereas I went to an event this year where I changed my outlook and I went for the top ten because I’d been injured leading up to it and so I thought what am I here for; am I here to win or would I be happy in the top ten. When I accepted that I was just going to chill out a bit and just accept the result I got and if it was in the top ten I would be happy it made everything so much easier. I even enjoyed the contest day because I was doing stuff I knew I would be happy with. I got ninth so really happy with that actually. It wasn’t my best result of this year but one where I was really happy because what I set out to do I achieved and that is the same as setting out to win and winning really.”

He uses lots of visualisation…

“With this video project I used visualisation out of necessity. I was injured at the start of it, when we went into building the course. I was injured so I couldn’t practice anything or even try out the jumps we were building so I was basically having to give dimensions and features I was telling the builders to make and I was having to look at them enough that I thought they were definitely perfect and trust when it came to filming on them they would be ready to go. But it was quite hard. Some of the stuff I did for the first time when we were filming. The day the cameras were set up and ready to go that was the first day I was doing the jumps. I had to do tricks I’ve never done before so it felt like real high pressure but I was pretty confident it was built to the right spec and that it was going to work.”

“It helped to be there and look at it with my own eyes and imagining it, definitely in slow motion and then speed things up. I found that if I did that enough, when it actually came to doing it for real on my bike it didn’t feel new. It felt almost familiar which is quite cool. Generally, if you do something for the first time you have no idea about the outcome but with these tricks it didn’t even feel new. When it worked I didn’t even feel surprised because it had worked in my head so many times.”

“I could lie on the sofa and I could go over and look at the course and use that time to visualise riding it. Now I’m not injured and I’m back riding every day I’m still using it now to bring that element of risk down and try to get to the end goal quicker. It is super useful to be honest.”

Uses other people’s confidence in him to build his own confidence…

“I’d be lying if I said every time I was starting to work on a new trick knowing the filming was coming up I could capture it. I never was 100% sure but I had to tools to make it work and a bit of mental strength to go with it but there is always that element of risk and some stuff doesn’t go. I think the confidence came from a bit of self-belief and the drive to make the most of the opportunity with this video. Because I’ve never had that before. If it wasn’t for this big project I’d probably have tried a trick a few times and if it wasn’t working I’d have left it but because everything had been built in a bespoke way and these tricks had been worked out it almost felt like I had no choice but to keep working on it and there was enough push from people around me to see it through which was really cool. On normal typical jumps I ride, if I wanted to do a trick for a video or contest and it wasn’t working I’d find the next best one and compromise but with this because everything was so specific and tailor made there was no compromise it was the trick I’d written down or nothing. There was a lot of pressure riding on ‘will it even work’ because if it doesn’t that is a whole idea gone out of the window. There was pressure but also opportunity with you have that thing you have asked for to make this work; let’s do it. So that was a massive benefit and a level of excitement that I had the opportunity to do it and I didn’t want to let that one away really.”


Is your Garmin making you addicted to exercise?

Tech logos for presentationI have been working on a piece of research over the last year to try to see if there are any links between the amount of fitness technologies athletes use and their risk of exercise addiction. I am presenting the findings at the annual conference for Sport Psychologists next week in Glasgow. The slide deck and notes I will be using can be read here: Technology and exercise addiction

I’ll write up a more easily accessible blog on the findings in the future but for those who would like to know more immediately this slide deck should give some of the answers.

Becoming a sport psychologist

I get at least a couple of emails each month asking how to get into sports psychology and whether I can offer work experience. I also give quite a few talks to sports science students in schools on what sport psychology involves. While I love chatting directly (and am always happy to do if you have any questions) I thought a blog post answering the most common questions could be helpful. The thoughts I’ve written here are all from my personal experience and I’ve tried to be as frank as possible but everyone will have a slightly different experience and background that they bring into sports psychology so it is just a general guide.


Where do sport psychologists work?

A million dollar question!

  • Some sport psychologists work in universities or colleges teaching sport psychology and work with athletes or teams in the evenings or weekends. This is a great way to get guaranteed decent income and keep on top of the latest research and ideas. You also have good access to athletes as you’ll be surrounded by student athletes in the university.
  • Some sports psychologists work directly for teams or national governing bodies. They are often employed through the English Institute of Sport who supply sport support specialists to Olympic and Paralympic governing bodies. More and more Football, Cricket and Rugby teams are also taking on Psychologists now too.
  • Finally, there is a group of Sports Psychologists who work for themselves or in consultancies working on contracts or directly with athletes and often using the same skills and techniques with people in business too.

What do Sports Psychologists do each day?

Another million dollar question! I tend to split my work into five areas:

  1. Dissemination. Writing for magazines or giving talks, workshops and lectures about sport psychology and how athletes of all levels can use psychology to improve their performances.
  2. Counselling. Working with athletes who need some support to help them enjoy their sport more. This will be particularly helpful if athletes are close to retirement or are injured and need to explore what else outside of sport they may want to get involved with.
  3. Performance excellence. Working with individual athletes to teach them skills, techniques and strategies to help them perform better and feel more comfortable when they compete in their sport.
  4. Performance breakdowns. Often athletes will come to me with one specific thing that they can see is holding them back. We work together to find some strategies to resolve these issues.
  5. Media training. My background is in PR and Communications so I work with athletes (and other high performing professionals) to help them navigate the issues around dealing with the media, make them feel more comfortable when doing it and stop any fears about dealing with the media impacting on their performance.

What qualifications do you need?

To be able to call yourself a Sport and Exercise Psychologist you need to have completed and passed:

If you want to work in psychology but are not worried about being able to use the official ‘psychologist’ title, instead of going through the BPS you can sign up with British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) and follow their supervised practice training instead.

How long does it take?

If you follow a straight line from BSc to completing Stage 2 and did it all full time it would take six years.

How much does it cost to qualify?

This will be different at each university and with different supervisors but for me it cost:

  • MSc Psychology Conversion course: £6,400 for the year (UK national)
  • Stage 1 – MSc in Sport and Exercise Psychology: £7,300 for the year (UK national)
  • Stage 2 – BPS Supervised practice: Around £6,000 to the BPS for the full period and around £1,500 a year to your supervisor.

Can I train part time?

Yes. The MSc in Sport and Exercise Psychology can usually be completed part time and it is up to you how long you take to do the Stage 2 supervised practice so you can do that alongside another job. With the Stage 2 supervised practice you are essentially gathering evidence that you can work effectively in four areas:

  • CPD – learning new skills to increase your knowledge and expertise
  • Research – a big research project which is expected to be at the standard of PhD research.
  • Dissemination – knowing how to communicate sport psychology knowledge, information and techniques. This could be through a mixture of conferences, workshops, magazine writing, a blog or teaching.
  • Consultancy – this is the work you do with individual athletes.

To pass you are expected to be able to show evidence that you have completed around 550 days of work across these four areas (which is why it takes at least 2 years full time).

How can I get work experience?

It is incredibly difficult to get work experience in psychology as client confidentiality is so important. Therefore it is very unlikely you would be able to sit in individual athlete sessions. There are a few things you can try though:

  • Skills for Performance course: There is a fantastic course run by the English Institute of Sport each year called Skills for Performance. When I attended it was five days and held at Loughborough Uni. It gave a fantastic insight in what Sport Psychologists working in Elite sport were doing and how they worked with athletes and other members of the support team. Keep an eye out on the EIS twitter feed to apply: @eis2win
  • Workshops: Many Sport Psychologists run workshops for athletes or sports parents and sitting in on one of these will give you a great insight in how the theories you learn in university are translated into applied practice. Ask any sport psychologists you follow on twitter or have met if you can attend any of their workshops.
  • Attend conferences: Conferences can be a brilliant way to learn about new research, and learn new applied techniques. The BPS DSEP (Dept of Sport and Exercise Psychology) runs a great conference every December and they offer discounts to students to attend. BASES also run conferences.

What is the industry like?

Considering there are so many sport psychologists and so few jobs I’ve been incredibly surprised by how lovely the other sport psychologists I’ve met are. It is a small sector and everyone is very helpful and supportive. It is welcoming and inclusive.

Analyse your year – get set for next

Brave listMost athletes in individual sports have now finished their seasons and many have had a training break too. Now comes winter training, which can feel a bit daunting when you don’t have anything in the near future to focus on. A great activity to do during this period involves nothing more than your favourite drink (a large very hot latte for me please!), a pen and this Annual analysis sheet. Page 1 will help you think about all you have achieved this year, consider what you learnt and put any issues or problems into perspective.

Page 2 helps you look at next year. What do you want to achieve? What will you do differently. What is getting you excited about next year (and if there isn’t anything you need to go race hunting!).

Finally, something I always do for each year that I learnt from a friend who runs the website is to set a word for the year. This year my word was Brave. When I dithered about anything, or thought it was beyond my abilities or my status, I reminded myself I was aiming to be brave and got on with it. I created a ‘Brave list’ and jotted down every time I did something I felt brave doing, and I jotted next to it the outcome. Looking back over it, at least half of the 30 new things I had to summon up some bravery to do were successful. So 15 things I’d have not achieved without that word. So what is your word going to be?